Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2018-01-0413
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ). This paper presents controls development, modeling results, and model validation for simulations of a vehicle with a 48 V Belt Integrated Starter Generator (BISG) mild hybrid electric vehicle and an initial model design for a 48 V inline on-axis P2-configuration mild hybrid electric vehicle. Both configurations were modeled with a MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow tool, which has been integrated into EPA’s ALPHA vehicle model and was also used to model components within Gamma Technology GT-DRIVE simulations. The mild hybrid electric vehicle model was validated using vehicle data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) chassis dynamometer tests of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu Eco 115 V 15 kW BISG mild hybrid electric vehicle. The simulated fuel economy, engine torque/speed, motor torque/speed, engine on-off controls, battery voltage, current, and State of Charge (SOC) were all in good agreement with the vehicle test data on a number of drive schedules. The developed 48 V mild hybrid electric vehicle model can be used to estimate the GHG emissions and fuel economy of 48 V mild hybrid electric vehicles over the EPA regulatory drive cycles and to estimate off-cycle GHG emissions. The 48 V mild hybrid electric vehicle model will be further validated with additional 48 V mild hybrid electric vehicle test data in the future as more vehicle models become available. EPA has included 48 V BISG mild hybrid electric vehicle technology in its assessment of CO2-reducing technologies available for compliance with U.S. GHG standards.