Analysis and Opportunities for Solar Photovoltaics Technologies on Electrified Vehicles 2018-01-0426
The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive investigation of the opportunities and applications of using solar panels in electrified vehicles. The use of photovoltaic (PV) panels as an auxiliary energy source of on-board fuel in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), full hybrid electric vehicles (FHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) is investigated. The electrical architectures and the benefits of various possible applications are presented, such as active vehicle cabin ventilation, charging the low voltage battery, charging the high voltage (HV) traction battery to extended driving ranges. In addition, a novel solar powered battery thermal management system is developed to cool and heat the HV battery in extreme temperature environments. Here, the analysis is based on experimental and modeling results to relate the HV battery temperature with HV battery installation locations within the vehicle before and after using solar panel. This work also analyzes the CO2 credits made available, by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European Commission (EU), for automakers, which equip their vehicles with solar panels. Finally, the challenges and market outlook that make the on-board solar panel a more economical and effective solution for electrified vehicles are highlighted.