Benefits of Pd Doped Zeolites for Cold Start HC/NOx Emission Reductions for Gasoline and E85 Fueled Vehicles 2018-01-0948
In the development of HC traps (HCT) for reducing vehicle cold start hydrocarbon (HC)/nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, zeolite-based adsorbent materials were studied as key components for the capture and release of the main gasoline-type HC/NOx species in the vehicle exhaust gas. Typical zeolite materials capture and release certain HC and NOx species at low temperatures (<200°C), which is lower than the light-off temperature of a typical three-way catalyst (TWC) (≥250°C). Therefore, a zeolite alone is not effective in enhancing cold start HC/NOx emission control. We have found that a small amount of Pd (<0.5 wt%) dispersed in the zeolite (i.e., BEA) can significantly increase the conversion efficiency of certain HC/NOx species by increasing their release temperature. Pd was also found to modify the adsorption process from pure physisorption to chemisorption and may have played a role in the transformation of the adsorbed HCs to higher molecular weight species. Both these processes led to desorption at higher temperatures and more efficient conversion. Laboratory studies on BEA zeolite, with and without Pd, are described. These studies show the benefits of Pd-zeolite on the capture and release of HC/NOx species such as ethanol, ethylene, propylene, and toluene. It was also observed that the benefit of Pd in the zeolite was not stable under high-temperature rich conditions. This indicates a possible limitation for the application of Pd-beta in stoichiometric engine exhaust. A base metal was also added to the Pd-zeolite that stabilized emissions trapping after high-temperature rich aging conditions. Parallel vehicle emission test results also confirmed the benefits of the base metal-stabilized Pd-BEA zeolite in reducing cold start HC emissions.