Ground Landing Mechanisms in Vehicle-To-Pedestrian Impacts Based on Accident Video Records 2018-01-1044
Accident data have shown that the pedestrian injuries resulting from contact with the ground are serious and may even be worse than the injuries resulting from the primary contact with the vehicle. The landing mechanisms, including the pedestrian trajectory and subsequent sequential body region contacts to the ground, are the basis for understanding the ground impact injuries of pedestrians. However, the landing mechanisms of pedestrian are too complicated to be categorized via investigation of the collision information after an accident has occurred. Nowadays, pedestrian kinematics after vehicle impacts can be observed from the accident videos that have been recorded by road monitoring and driver recorders. This study was aimed at investigating the pedestrian landing mechanisms and analyzing the influencing factors. In the current study, 134 pedestrian cases (involving 136 pedestrians) were selected from the internet, and 13 types of landing mechanisms were classified according to the fall kinematics and landing posture. Our results show that pedestrians who were thrown forward and hit the ground without a clear rotational tendency (ground landing mechanism II) accounted for the highest frequency, 49.3% in all cases. The landing mechanisms of pedestrians were affected by impact velocities and kinematic trajectories during vehicle impacts. The results of this study can benefit the development of vehicle safety systems that reduce pedestrian ground impact injuries.