Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology for a Sustainable Future: A Review 2018-01-1307
This paper discusses some crucial energetic, environmental and sustainability issues and the role of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies as one of the potential solutions to these issues. Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewable grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVS)-zero emissions, high efficiency, quiet operation and long life-with the long range and a fast refueling time of internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs). If fuel-cell technology develops as hoped, then hydrogen FCEVs will be a significant advance over both hydrogen ICEVs and solar BPEVs they will be cleaner and more efficient than hydrogen ICEVs, have a much shorter refueling time than BPEVs and have a lower life-cycle cost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles would be general-purpose zero-emission vehicles and could be an important component of a strategy for reducing dependence on imported oil, mitigating global warming and improving urban air quality, at an acceptable cost. This paper will unfold the possibility of replacing the existing power generating sources with fuel cells.