Effects of EGR Constituents and Fuel Composition on DISI Engine Knock: An Experimental and Modeling Study 2018-01-1677
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition engines has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects under specific operating conditions. These include reducing pumping work under part load conditions, reducing NOx emissions and heat losses by lowering peak combustion temperatures, and by reducing the tendency for engine knock (caused by end-gas autoignition) under certain operating regimes. In this study, the effects of EGR addition on knocking combustion are investigated through a combined experimental and modeling approach. The problem is investigated by considering the effects of individual EGR constituents, such as CO2, N2, and H2O, on knock, both individually and combined, and with and without traces species, such as unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The effects of engine compression ratio and fuel composition on the effectiveness of knock suppression with EGR addition were also investigated.
A parametric, experimental matrix of diluents, compression ratio, and fuels was tested to measure knock-limited combustion phasing of each combination. The resulting knock limits were evaluated in the context of thermodynamic effects on the closed cycle, chemical interactions between the EGR constituents and the fuel-oxidizer mixture, and the effect of altered pressure-temperature trajectories on fuel-autoignition behavior. This paper provides an overview of the experimental results, and uses chemical-kinetic modeling to investigate the behavior of a particular fuel - diluent combination which had a strong sensitivity to compression ratio variation. The numerical results shed light on the complex interactions between fuel chemistry, the engine’s thermodynamic cycle, and the effect of residence times on the autoignition chemistry which leads to knock. An important and fuel-dependent role of thermal stratification in the end-gas is also suggested by the chemical-kinetics modeling of the experimentally observed knock limits.
David Vuilleumier, Namho Kim, Magnus Sjöberg, Nozomi Yokoo, Terutoshi Tomoda, Koichi Nakata
Sandia National Laboratories, Toyota Motor Corp.
International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting