Dual Fuel Injection (DI + PFI) for Knock and EGR Dilution Limit Extension in a Boosted SI Engine 2018-01-1735
Combined direct and port fuel injection (i.e., dual injection) in spark ignition engines is of increasing interest due to the advantages for fuel flexibility and the individual merits of each system for improving engine performance and reducing engine-out emissions. Greater understanding of the impact of dual injection will enable deriving the maximum benefit from the two injection systems. This study investigates the effects of dual injection on combustion, especially knock propensity and tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) dilution at different levels of EGR. A baseline for comparison with dual injection results was made using direct injection fueling only. A splash blended E20 fuel was used for the direct injection only tests. For the dual injection tests, gasoline, representing 80% by volume of the total fuel, was injected using the direct injector, and ethanol, representing 20% by volume of the total fuel, was injected using the port fuel injector. EGR mass fraction was varied from 0% to 21%, under boosted intake air pressure of 1.25 bar for both injection strategies. The results showed dual injection was beneficial to shorten the burn duration and improve combustion stability. Dual injection was more sensitive to knock than direct injection primarily due to increased unburned gas temperature. The overall thermal efficiency for the two injection types was comparable. The particulate matter emissions from dual injection showed slightly lower values, and the gaseous emissions showed lower total hydrocarbons and similar nitrogen oxides compared with only using direct injection of E20.