The article deals with the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the technological vehicle during its work on various types of fuel. The purpose of the work is to choose a rational type of fuel or an energy source for vehicles according to one general criterion. The feature of the proposed methodology is that the indicators of fuel and engine are estimated by the criterion of adaptability of technique to a particular type of fuel. A new approach to environmental safety assessment of technological vehicles while working on different fuels by environmental criterion taking into account the amount of emissions of harmful substances, their maximum permissible concentrations and hazard class. The economic efficiency in the operation of vehicles on alternative fuels is estimated by the criterion of economic efficiency. Fuel consumption and emissions of harmful substances of the engine 4FS 11.0/12.5 at various speed and loading modes when working on different fuels were determined in the experimental method. The obtained characteristics of the engine for their use in the mathematical model of motion of the vehicle were described by polynomial dependencies. Quantitative values of fuel consumption and emissions of harmful substances in the process of moving a technological vehicle for a ride cycle using various types of fuels were obtained by method of mathematical modeling. The analysis helps to define the efficient type of the fuel in accordance with the above mention criteria. Natural gas has the greatest value for choosing the appropriate fuel type. Less criterion is used for biodiesel fuel, the lowest value criterion is appropriate for petroleum diesel fuel.