Human Shoulder Response to Lateral Impact in Intermediate Loading Conditions Between High-Velocity, Short-Duration and Low-Velocity, Long-Duration 2018-22-0008
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) commonly known as the crash test dummy is also used in the military domain to assess the risk of injury of armored vehicles occupants from lateral impact. The loading conditions range from low velocity - long duration impacts (4 m/s - 50 ms) similar to the automotive domain, to high velocity - short duration impacts (28 m/s - 3 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion. The human shoulder response to lateral impact was investigated at bounds of the loading condition spectrum previously mentioned, and also at intermediate conditions (14 m/s - 9 ms) in previous studies. The aim of the current study is to provide additional insight at the intermediate loading conditions which are not found in the literature.
Eight pure lateral shoulder impact tests were performed on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) using an 8.1 kg rigid impactor at velocities ranging from 3.3 m/s to 8.8 m/s with the duration ranging from 25 ms to 35 ms. The PMHS were instrumented with accelerometers attached to the sternum, and the upper thoracic spine (T1 vertebra). Strain gages were glued onto the right and left clavicles and ribs 2 to 6. The shoulder force was measured at the interface with the impactor and the impact was filmed by high speed cameras (5000 fps) to track the YZ displacements of the impactor, T1 vertebra, and sternum in the laboratory frame.
Three shoulders out of the eight sustained AIS 2 injuries which included a clavicle fracture. The impactor forces ranged from 1200 to 4600 N. The PMHS accelerations ranged from 44 to 163 g at the sternum, and from 17 to 60 g at the T1 vertebra. The analysis of the strain gage signals revealed that the clavicle fractures occurred at the beginning of the impact and coincided with a peak force. An estimate of the acromion-to-shoulder compression (Cmax) was computed. It ranged from 0% to 15% for the non-injured shoulders, and from 19% to 28% for the injured shoulders.
This new PMHS test series will be used in a future work to develop a shoulder injury criterion for the ES-2re ATD that is relevant for the whole loading conditions spectrum of the military domain.