Browse Publications Technical Papers 2018-28-0002
2018-07-09

Sustainability and Production Economics of Titanium for Engine Valve: India Perspective 2018-28-0002

Automotive industry is looking to have breakthrough for introduction of titanium in multi material vehicle (Al 37%, steel 42% & composites 21%) with cost effective solution as relative cost factor for titanium is 20 and 2.9 times greater than competitive automotive materials like steel and aluminium respectively. This will serve purpose of Indian government to meet BS VI norms by 2020 and to achieve the same i.e. to meet NOx level of 0.06 g/km for gasoline vehicles and 0.080 g/km for diesel vehicle will require EGR rates of 35% at full load at which conventional materials like steel, aluminium have to withstand for high temperature cycles and high compressed air pressure at outlet. Hence positive progress of implementation of titanium by proving its production economy and sustainability for powertrain and exhaust system components in vehicles for the mass market has got prime importance. But focusing on mass market may not work effectively as total production of titanium i.e. ilmenite and rutile is about 624 million tonnes by 2013 and on the other hand vehicle production in India by 2013 was 20.5 million units. Considering usage of titanium in other sectors, titanium if contribute up to 2 kg /vehicle may leads to proportionate increase fuel economy, lower emission and increase titanium usage in vehicle by 3%. To do so automotive engineers & designers need to attack cost & manufacturing barriers of titanium by effective research and development in the areas of ore extraction technology of titanium to make highly priced titanium user friendly for automotive industry. In addition to above economic study, to prove sustainability & Compatibility of titanium for automotive application metallurgical failure analysis of failed inlet and exhaust engine valve is carried out by fractography (SEM Analysis) and microstructural analysis which clearly indicates need, Sustainability and compatibility of titanium for high temperature automotive components.

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