Browse Publications Technical Papers 2019-01-0066

Simulation and Measurement of Transient Fluid Phenomena within Diesel Injection 2019-01-0066

Rail pressures of modern diesel fuel injection systems have increased significantly over recent years, greatly improving atomisation of the main fuel injection event and air utilisation of the combustion process. Continued improvement in controlling the process of introducing fuel into the cylinder has led to focus on fluid phenomena related to transient response. High-speed microscopy has been employed to visualise the detailed fluid dynamics around the near nozzle region of an automotive diesel fuel injector, during the opening, closing and post injection events. Complementary computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been undertaken to elucidate the interaction of the liquid and gas phases during these highly transient events, including an assessment of close-coupled injections. Microscopic imaging shows the development of a plug flow in the initial stages of injection, with rapid transition into a primary breakup regime, followed by a finely atomised spray and vaporisation. During closure the spray collapses, with evidence of swirling breakup structures together with unstable ligaments of fuel breaking into large slow-moving droplets, leading to sub-optimal combustion in the developing flame fronts established by the earlier, more fully-developed spray. The simulation results predict these observed phenomena, including surface wetting as a result of large slow-moving droplets and post- injection discharge of liquid fuel. This work suggests that post-injection discharges play a part in the mechanism of the initial formation, and subsequent accumulation of deposits on the exterior surface of the injector. For multiple injections, opening events are influenced by the dynamics of the previous injection closure; these phenomena have been investigated within the simulations.


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