Browse Publications Technical Papers 2019-01-0072

The impact of direct injection system design on PM emissions 2019-01-0072

GDI engines can have significantly higher particulate mass (PM) and particulate number (PN) emissions relative to equivalent displacement PFI engines. Both the EPA and California Air Resources Board have adopted new stringent standards to be phased in over the next 10 years. The California LEV III regulations continue to tighten to a 1 mg/mi FTP PM limit that is phased-in beginning with model year 2025 with full compliance by model year 2028. This study examines the different technological approaches that will be used to attain the standards to as well as their relative costs, market penetration potential, emission reduction and fuel economy impacts. The identification of alternative approaches and the analysis of their impacts was performed in two tasks. The first task was a comprehensive literature review and the findings of the review are presented in this report. In the second task, information on topics not fully informed by the literature review was obtained from interviews with experts at auto-manufacturers and fuel system suppliers. The information from the interviews was integrated with the findings from the literature review to develop a comprehensive understanding of vehicle PM emissions and the technological pathways that manufacturers could follow to comply with the 1 mg/mi standard.


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