Modeling and optimization of the consumption of a three-wheeled vehicle 2019-01-0164
In racing car development, simulations are used to predict the effect of design parameter changes on vehicle performance. The paper describes the modelling and the optimization of the powertrain design applicable to the development of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). A 1D-simulation model of the vehicle (three-wheeled vehicle, with two front steering wheels and one rear wheel, a hydrogen fuel cell and a high efficiency DC electric motor) and its subsystems has been carried out in AMESim in order to analyze the behavior of the vehicle, that must partecipe at the Shell Eco-marathon, a competition for fuel efficient cars.
Special attention has been paid to accurately model: the dynamics of the vehicle, the race track, the fuel cell, the electric system, the transmission ratio and the efficiency of each component. Model of the vehicle is a close loop system in which the fuel cell feeds the DC electric motor which gives its torque to the rear wheel to move the vehicle. More speed developed by the engine would produce more resistance of vehicle dynamics, but it corresponds to a higher working point in the polarization curve of the fuel cell which means higher efficiency. The optimization leads to find the right combination of these factors in order to achieve the least fuel consumption, taking into account the constraints of time, average velocity, highest velocity to perform a corner and physical limit of the electric motor. Finally, the simulation results in term of consumption and current profile have been validated with the results obtained on the track during the competition in London, obtaining a good agreement.
Massimiliana Carello, Alberto Bertipaglia, Alessandro Messana, Andrea Giancarlo Airale, Lorenzo Sisca