A 1D Real-Time Engine Manifold Gas Dynamics Model using Orthogonal Collocation Coupled with the Method of Characteristics 2019-01-0190
In this paper, a new solution method is presented to study the effect of wave propagation in engine manifolds, which includes solving one-dimensional models for compressible flow of air inside an engine manifold. Velocity, pressure, and density profiles are found by solving a system of non-linear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in space and time derived from Euler’s equations. The considered 1D model includes frictional losses, area change, and heat transfer. The solution is traditionally found by utilizing the Method of Characteristics and applying finite difference solutions on the resulting system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) over a discretized grid. In this work, orthogonal collocation is used to solve the system of ODEs that is defined along the characteristic curves. Orthogonal polynomials are utilized to approximate velocity, pressure, sound speed, and the characteristic curves along which the system of PDEs reduce to a system of ODEs. The approximation polynomials are defined along the whole manifold domain transforming Euler’s equations into a system of ODEs that can be solved using a generic ODE solver. This reduction is done symbolically using a computer algebraic system (MAPLE). The method results in a derived system of ODEs that has a higher spatial order along the whole space, reducing the number of nodes required to find an acceptable solution that captures the state dynamics at different locations inside the manifold in real time. The proposed model is compared against the Method of Characteristics that is used as a reference model; this comparison includes the states at the inlet, outlet, and midpoint. In summary, a high order method that can calculate solutions of the 1D manifold model equations is developed by finding the respective polynomial approximations along the whole 1D space and solving the resultant system using a generic solver in real time.