Browse Publications Technical Papers 2019-01-0197
2019-04-02

Investigation of Fuel Condensation Processes under Non-reacting Conditions in an Optically-Accessible Engine 2019-01-0197

Engine experiments have revealed the importance of fuel condensation on the emission characteristics of low temperature combustion. However, direct in-cylinder experimental evidence has not been reported in the literature. In this paper, the in-cylinder condensation processes observed in optically accessible engine experiments are first illustrated. The observed condensation processes are then simulated using state-of-the-art multidimensional engine CFD simulations with a phase transition model that incorporates a well-validated phase equilibrium numerical solver, in which a thermodynamically consistent phase equilibrium analysis is applied to determine when mixtures become unstable and a new phase is formed. The model utilizes fundamental thermodynamics principles to judge the occurrence of phase separation or combination by minimizing the system Gibbs free energy. It is shown that thermodynamically unstable mixtures are formed during the late expansion stroke for the conditions of the experiments. Close agreement on the beginning of condensation is also observed between the simulations and available experiments.

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