Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel – Additional Cycle Runtime and Teardown Analysis 2019-01-0263
This study is a continuation of previous work intended to assess the robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. All the hardware from the original study was retained except for the high pressure pump head and check valves which were replaced due to cavitation damage. An additional 400 hour NATO cycle was run on the refurbished fuel system to achieve a total exposure time of 800 hours and detect any other significant failure modes. As in the initial investigation, fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and flow rates were logged on a test bench to monitor performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were taken every 50 hours to asses fuel consistency, metallic wear, and interaction between fuel and oil. High fidelity driving torque and flow measurements were made to compare overall system performance when operating with both diesel and light distillate fuel. Injector rate shapes were measured as a function of time, and high resolution x-ray imaging of the nozzle tips was performed as part of the final teardown analysis. At the end of testing, there was a loss of rail pressure control at low fueling rates due to cavitation of the inlet check valve, consistent with prior findings. Although excessive fuel-in-oil dilution was not observed, there were indications of fuel contamination by oil as evidenced by elemental analysis. The light distillate required higher fuel system driving power and had a lower hydraulic efficiency than diesel due to a combination of higher vapor formation and leakage flow. Injectors exhibited reduced fueling rates after 600 hours of exposure and showed significant signs of cavitation damage within the nozzle tip. However, fuel wetted components in sliding contact did not show extraordinary signs of wear, potentially due to the use of lubricity additive.
Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Vincent Costanzo, Roberto Medina, John Nelson, Katarzyna Matusik, Brandon Sforzo, Alan Kastengren, Christopher Powell
Aramco Research Center - Detroit, Cummins Inc., Argonne National Laboratory