Browse Publications Technical Papers 2019-01-0982

Accelerating Accurate Urea/SCR Film Temperature Simulations to Time-Scales Needed for Urea Deposit Predictions 2019-01-0982

Urea water solution-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx emissions from vehicular diesel engines is now widely used world-wide to meet strict health and environmental protection regulations. While urea-based SCR is proven effective, urea-derived deposits often form near injectors, on mixers and pipes, and on the SCR catalyst face. Further understanding of these deposit-formation processes is needed to design aftertreatment system hardware and control systems capable of avoiding severe urea-derived deposits. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used in SCR aftertreatment design. Film formation, movement, solid wall cooling and deposit initiation/growth time-scales are in the range of minutes to hours, but traditional CFD simulations take too long to reach these time-scales. Here, we propose and demonstrate the frozen flow approach for pulsed sprays and conjugate heat transfer to reduce computation time while maintaining accuracy of key physics. The motivation and assumptions of frozen flow are discussed and the experiments of Birkhold et al. are simulated for validation. Simulations up to 200 seconds are completed in several days computation time, including every injection event and continuous thermal modeling of the solid. These simulations resolve the time history of solid cooling accurately, without scaling any physical properties.


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