Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels 2019-01-1185
Low temperature combustion (LTC) engine technologies offer opportunities for higher efficiency and lower NOx emissions. Light-end distillate fuels have been shown to help promote LTC and produce very low soot emissions compared to ULSD fuel. In a previous study, a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was shown to produce lower PM emissions when using a light-end distillate fuel as a substitution for ULSD. In this study, the compression ratio of a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was lowered and the split injection strategy was developed to promote the partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion. Various gasoline-like light-end distillate fuels were compared with ULSD fuel for performance and emissions. The PM was characterized with particle mass, size, and number measurements, organic/elemental carbon analysis, chemical speciation and thermogravimetric analysis. Using light-end distillate fuels, engine-out PM emissions at the same engine-out NOx level were significantly reduced compared to ULSD fuels, while hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were only slightly increased. Light-end distillate PM samples were found to contain higher volatiles, organic carbon, and nitrogenated HC species, not typically found in diesel PM, and showed lower peak oxidation temperature compared to ULSD PM samples.
Jong Lee, Tom Tzanetakis, Yu Zhang, Michael Traver, Sam Lewis, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey
Aramco Research Center, Aramco Services Co, Oak Ridge National Laboratory