Computationally Efficient Reduced-order Powertrain Model of a Multi-mode Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Connected and Automated Vehicles 2019-01-1210
This paper presents the development of a reduced-order powertrain model for energy and SOC estimation of a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with velocity and elevation inputs. Such a model is intended to overcome the computational inefficiencies of higher fidelity powertrain and vehicle models in short and long horizon optimization efforts such as Coordinated Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), Eco Approach and Departure (Eco AND), Eco Routing, and PHEV mode blending. The reduced-order powertrain model enables Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) to utilize the onboard sensor and connected data to quickly react and plan their maneuvers to highly dynamic road conditions with minimal computational resources. Although overall estimation accuracy is less than neural network and high-fidelity models, emphasis on runtime minimization with reasonable estimation accuracy enables energy optimization of CAV without a need for computationally expensive server-based models. Performance of the model is evaluated on a fleet of Chevrolet Volts (Gen 2) in a variety of driving scenarios and drive cycle durations. Road testing indicates that the model can predict actual vehicle behaviour and energy consumption with a median estimation accuracy of over 90% with a run time of 0.3 seconds for a 40-minute drive cycle, making the model highly advantageous for real time energy optimization in CAV applications.