Browse Publications Technical Papers 2019-01-1237

Tire Ply-Steer, Conicity and Rolling Resistance - Analytical Formulae for Accurate Assessment of Vehicle Performance during Straight Running 2019-01-1237

The aim of the paper is to provide simple and accurate analytical formulae describing the straight motion of a road vehicle. Such formulae can be used to compute either the steering torque or the additional rolling resistance induced by vehicle side-slip angle.
The paper introduces a revised formulation of the Handling Diagram Theory to take into account tire ply-steer, conicity and road banking. Pacejka’s Handling Diagram Theory is based on a relatively simple fully non-linear single track model. We will refer to the linear part of the Handling Diagram, since straight motion will be considered only. Both the elastokinematics of suspension system and tire characteristics are taken into account.
The validation of the analytical expressions has been performed both theoretically and after a subjective-objective test campaign.
By means of the new and unreferenced analytical formulae, practical hints are given to set to zero the steering torque during straight running. Additionally, the vehicle rolling resistance during straight motion is studied. It is found that front toe seems primarily set for reasons that are related to the steering system, other than tires. Reducing front toe could reduce energy consumption up to 1% on a WLTP mission.


Subscribers can view annotate, and download all of SAE's content. Learn More »


Members save up to 18% off list price.
Login to see discount.

Due to current capacity constraints, printed versions of our publications - including standards, technical papers, EDGE Reports, scholarly journal articles, books, and paint chips - may experience shipping delays of up to four to six weeks. We apologize for any inconvenience.
We also recommend:

Optimization of a Vehicle Suspension Using a Semi-Active Damper


View Details


Effect of Steering System Compliance on Steered Axle Tire Wear


View Details


A Control Strategy to Compensate the Reaction Torque of Active Front Steering System


View Details