Energy Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Trip Chain Distributions:
Implications on Charging Station Requirement and Energy Reduction Potential 2019-01-1396
The present study presented the collection of extensive traffic data that covers the traffic conditions and the traffic volume distributed over the Bangkok areas, the application of energy consumption models from previous study of two PHEV models and the evaluation of the potential for reduction in the energy consumption in Bangkok areas. On average, the commute in Bangkok has a longer trip than that in Beijing. Hence, the workplace charging availability could be an important incentive for potential PHEV adoption. With wide spread of the charging stations (the case of 2.5-h trip chain), for PHEVs with the CD range of 20 and 30 km, 54% and 70% of daily trips of PHEVs in Bangkok can be covered in the primarily electricity of CD mode. Under Bangkok driving situations, the use of PHEV offers the increasing of CD range from EPA standard that can be explained by the over estimation on the regenerative part modes due to the small number of VSP modes to cover regeneration conditions, a close inspection into the traffic dataset reveals that, in Bangkok, the ratio of time spent in VSP mode 1 and 2 is about the same for North Carolina State University driving pattern while that number is almost double that of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area driving pattern. Under Bangkok driving situations, the use of PHEV offers energy reduction potential from 60-75% compared to the internal combustion engine models, depending on the vehicle configurations. This finding, however, suggested that ubiquitous charging opportunities, although increase the percentages of time or distance under the CD mode, offer minimal impact to the energy reduction potential of the PHEVs.