A Three-Layer Thermodynamic Model for Ice Crystal Accretion on Warm Surfaces: EMM-C 2019-01-1963
Ingestion of high altitude atmospheric ice particles can be hazardous to gas turbine engines in flight. An expansion in engine certification requirements to incorporate ice crystal conditions has spurred efforts to develop analytical models for phenomenon, as a method of demonstrating safe operation. In this paper, a new thermodynamic model for ice crystal accretion is developed through adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) from supercooled water conditions to mixed phase conditions (ice crystal and supercooled water). A novel three-layer accretion structure is proposed and the underlying equations described. The EMM improves upon the original model for airframe icing, the Messinger Model, by permitting a linear temperature gradient through the ice and water layers. This in turn allows prediction of the time over which water exists in isolation on an initially warm surface, before an ice layer forms. This is of particular interest to engine icing, as surfaces may initially be significantly above freezing temperature, before cooling on exposure to ice particles. The method is solved in a multi-step approach, where the overall exposure time is divided into discrete windows, and the calculation performed over each window. This allows the local flow conditions to be updated between windows, permitting the incorporation of a reducing flow enthalpy due to particle evaporation, as well as transient engine operation. Results from the model are compared to experimental results from the NRC’s Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac). Comparisons are made to solutions generated using a purely continuity-based approach and the standard Messinger Model.
Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie, Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford, Rolls-Royce Plc
International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures