Biofidelic Evaluation of the Large Omni-Directional Child Anthropomorphic Test Device in Low Speed Loading Conditions 2019-22-0009
Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death for children. Traditionally, restraint design has focused on the crash phase of the impact with an optimally seated occupant. In order to optimize restrain design for real-world scenarios, research has recently expanded its focus to non-traditional loading conditions including pre-crash positioning and lower speed impacts. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biofidelity of the large omni-directional child (LODC) ATD in non-traditional loading conditions by comparing its response to pediatric volunteer data in low-speed sled tests. Low-speed (2-4 g, 1.9-3.0 m/s) frontal (0°), far-side oblique (60°), and far-side lateral (90°) sled tests, as well as lateral swerving (0.72 g, 0.5 Hz) tests, were conducted using the LODC. The LODC was restrained using a 3-point-belt with an electromechanical motorized seat belt retractor, or pre-pretensioner. Motion capture markers were placed on the head, torso, and belt. The LODC was compared to previously collected pediatric volunteer data as well as the HIII 10 and Q10. Significant difference between the pediatric volunteers and ATDs were identified by comparing the mean ATD response to the pediatric volunteer 95% CI. The LODC exhibited lower forward head excursion (262 mm) compared to pediatric volunteers (263 - 333 mm) in low-speed frontal sled tests (p<0.05), but was closer to the pediatric volunteers than the HIII 10 (179 mm) and Q10 (171 mm). In lateral swerving, the LODC (429 mm) exhibited greater lateral head excursion (p<0.05) compared to pediatric volunteers (115 - 171 mm). The LODC exhibited a greater reduction in kinematics compared to the pediatric volunteers in all loading conditions with a pre-pretensioner. These data provide valuable insight into the biofidelity of the LODC in non-traditional loading conditions, such as evaluating pre-crash maneuvers on occupant response.