The Effect of An Acoustic Startling Warning On Take-Over Reaction Time And Trunk Kinematics for Drivers in Autonomous Driving Scenarios 2019-22-0022
The Acoustic Startling Pre-stimulus (ASPS, i.e. a loud sound preceding a physical perturbation) was previously found to accelerate action execution in simple flexion exercises. Therefore in this study we examined if ASPS can accelerate take-over reaction times in restrained teen and adult drivers who were asked to reach for the steering wheel while experiencing sled lateral perturbations simulating a vehicle swerve. Results showed that adult drivers lift their hands toward the steering wheel faster with the ASPS versus without (161 ± 23 ms vs 216 ± 27 ms, p<0.003). However this effect was not found in teens or in trials where the drivers were engaged in a secondary task. Adults also showed reduced lateral trunk displacement out of the seat belt with the ASPS. The ASPS could represent a novel warning that reduces take over time and out-of-position movements in critical autonomous driving scenarios.