Browse Publications Technical Papers 2019-24-0102
2019-09-09

Analysis of Water Injection Strategies to Exploit the Thermodynamic Effects of Water in Gasoline Engines by Means of a 3D-CFD Virtual Test Bench 2019-24-0102

CO2 emission constraints taking effect from 2020 lead to further investigations of technologies to lower knock sensitivity of gasoline engines, main limiting factor to increase engine efficiency and thus reduce fuel consumption. Moreover the RDE cycle demands for higher power operation, where fuel enrichment is needed for component protection. To achieve high efficiency, the engine should be run at stoichiometric conditions in order to have better emission control and reduce fuel consumption. Among others, water injection is a promising technology to improve engine combustion efficiency, by mainly reducing knock sensitivity and to keep high conversion rates of the TWC over the whole engine map. The comprehension of multiple thermodynamic effects of water injection through 3D-CFD simulations and their exploitation to enhance the engine combustion efficiency is the main purpose of the analysis. As basis for the research a single cylinder engine derived from a 1l turbocharged 3-cylinders engine is used to evaluate indirect and direct water injection. The entire engine flow field is reproduced and analyzed with 3D-CFD simulations and numerical models are employed to separate the influence of chemical and thermodynamic properties. Measurements are performed with different injectors for indirect/direct water injection in the single-cylinder engine in order to assess water break-up, wall wetting, spray interaction and penetration. Several injection strategies, such as varying start of injection, injection pressure, and water to fuel ratio, are tested at the single-cylinder engine test bench. Detailed gas phase chemistry is employed to link flame front speed with water concentration and knocking occurrence. These results are correlated with the 3D-CFD simulation of mixture formation, in-cylinder flow and water distribution for two different operating points (part load and maximum power) in order to study water behavior, with focus on the evaporation process, in-cylinder pressure and temperature profile, as well as the combustion development, during multiple engine cycles.

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