Browse Publications Technical Papers 2019-26-0120

Low Cost EV Platform for Three Wheeler Electrification Development 2019-26-0120

Electric vehicles are primarily being considered as a key growth segment in prospering India. The reduction in oil imports, pollution control all play a major role in the Government’s clarion call to the automotive industry. The NITI Aayog report, ‘India Leaps Ahead: Transformative Mobility Solutions for All’ issues the recommendations that the 3 wheelers and fleet vehicles are the low hanging fruit in the pursuit of electric vehicle future. While there are several players already in the electric 3 wheeler space; these vehicles mainly use lead acid batteries and a low powered motor with the motor controller taking care of the driver demand through the throttle. There are many real world problems with these vehicles - rapid deterioration of the battery, unable to meet the performance characteristics of the conventional benchmarks, motor damage due to abuse, etc. The market for electric 3 wheelers is being driven by a number of market factors, • Increasing usage of e-rickshaws vehicles in the larger metros, • Growing urbanization and the need for last mile connectivity for better usage of public transportation infrastructure, • Increasing range and affordability of lithium ion( Li- ion) batteries This paper present the FEV low cost EV platform, that is primarily intended to provide a modular and scalable platform for 2 and 3 wheelers that is robust and meets the desired performance characteristics. To enable this, we use a dedicated vehicle control unit (VCU) that is running FEV’s matured model library called PERSIST. The platform makes full use of the inherent advantage of being a small scale vehicle that can be used with a significantly lower safety risk than full sized vehicles. The electric vehicle platform will have modularly developed components and associated software and hardware with standardized interfaces. The electric power train includes support for standardized lithium ion batteries and a low cost vehicle control unit. This is required to not only safe guard the system overall but also be able to optimize the driving range, enhance drivability and to provide the driver with a more stable and secure interface for operating the vehicle. The expected rapid growth in the space demands that such platform based solutions are developed in order to cater to a variety of small and low speed electric vehicle applications. The paper will provide an overview of the algorithms used as well as the design decisions made for developing the platform. As a first application for the platform, FEV has developed an electric 3 wheeler, with performance characteristics matching or exceeding conventional 3 wheelers on road, with a top speed of 65 kmph and a driving range of 90km. The approach is focused on building a production intent level of vehicle and hence can also be readily applied on the existing 3 wheelers on the road as a retrofit solution. The paper will provide details on the electric 3 wheeler in IDC, real world conditions as well as the long term driving characteristics. The system design, component sizing, simulation activities are explained. The simulation results are compared with the real world data. The paper will also discuss the integration effort involved and provide a costing perspective for all the components for the electrified drivetrain.


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