Browse Publications Technical Papers 2019-26-0305

Cylinder Head Gasket Fretting Simulation for High Horse Power Engine 2019-26-0305

The head gasket of an internal combustion engine acts as an extremely critical seal between its cylinder block and heads. Traditionally, a high horsepower engine head gasket will be composed of steel or copper as a combustion seal and as a carrier for elastomeric sealing elements. The purpose of the head gasket is to seal high pressure combustion gases, coolant and oil to ensure no leakage of gases or fluids out of the block and liner to cylinder head joint. Two major failure modes for cylinder head gasket joint are; 1. Fluid or gas leakage due to low sealing pressure. 2. Gasket scrubbing/fretting due to pressure and temperature fluctuations causing relative movement in the joint. During engine operation, the head gasket design should be robust enough to prevent all failure modes. Sealing analysis methods to address the low sealing pressure failure mode are well developed and common within the industry. This paper is focused on the development and utilization of an analytical method for the 2nd failure mode mentioned above i.e. scrubbing/fretting of the metallic combustion seal. A single layer metal gasket is considered during the scope of mentioned method. The single layer metal gasket experiences local yielding due to the design feature provided on the cylinder liner, referred to as a “bite ring”. During the scope of work, head gasket combustion seal fretting mechanism is investigated. Based on the understanding of the fundamental fretting mechanism, considering Ruiz model, an analysis procedure is developed and finite element analysis results are correlated with failures morphologies and measured data. Finite element analysis results shows very good correlation in terms of relative sliding magnitude and failure location prediction. Commercial software ANSYS is used here. Actual gasket crushing is simulated by using 3D brick elements with non-linear material and geometric non linearity captured.


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