Browse Publications Technical Papers 2019-28-0042

Design and development of intake ports for 2-valve & 4-valve configurations for heavy duty off-highway Diesel Engine 2019-28-0042

Keywords - Four valve intake port design, steady flow test, CFD numerical simulation, off-highway engines Abstract: Future emission limits for off-highway application engines need advanced power train solutions to meet stringent emissions legislation, whilst meeting customer requirements and minimising engineering costs. Development of diesel engines for off-highway application for different power segments need different intake port design solutions to optimise in-cylinder flow structure for efficient combustion. With adaptation of low pressure mechanical fuel injection system, intake port development becomes an important stage for reduction of emission formation at the source and improvement in fuel economy. In this paper, intake port design and development process is elaborated for two different power ratings of 75 hp and 120 hp of off-highway engine. 2-valve and 4-valve configurations are deployed for the same cylinder bore size. Considering the legislative emission limits for these two power segments of engines, intake port are designed for target swirl and flow performance within the same constraints of cylinder head bolting pattern and valve train actuation mechanism. For 2-valve configuration, a helical intake port is designed through CFD flow analysis approach. While designing the intake port, various constraints like injector packaging, glow plug location, valve train actuation and water jacket manufacturability are given due consideration. A numerical analysis through CFD simulation using AVL-FIRE software is carried out to get detailed information about flow structure at higher and lower valve lifts and design is freezed to get target swirl level of 1.6 Four valve configuration has its fundamental advantages of higher volumetric efficiency, lower pumping loss, symmetric fuel spray & distribution in combination with the symmetric air motion which can give nearly optimal mixture formation and combustion process. A tandem port layout is designed considering the constraints common to 2-valve configuration. One helical port is designed to generate high swirl and another directed port is used to fill the charge to raise flow coefficient. In cylinder flow interactions from both ports is analysed through CFD analysis to achieve desired swirl level. Both the intake port designs for 2-valve and 4-valve are experimentally validated through testing of flow boxes on steady flow swirl rig. AVL paddle wheel method is used to evaluate experimental performance of port. Thus, development of 2valve and 4valve intake port designs for desired swirl targets are carried out though CFD analysis and experimentally validated. This provides a flexible platform for designing 2-valve and 4-valve intake ports for off highway diesel engines with mechanical fuel injection systems with commonality in major components.


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