Browse Publications Technical Papers 2020-01-0049

Correlation of Cylinder Head Gasket Sealing Analysis Results Between Gasket Element and 3D Continuum Element 2020-01-0049

A head gasket is a component that sits between the engine block/liner and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal high pressure combustion gasses in the cylinders, seal coolant and engine oil transfer ports between the block and head and to ensure no leakage of gasses or fluids out of the block to head joint; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in an engine. In general practice, the load deflection(L/D) characteristic is generated by the gasket manufacturer for edge molded or composite gasket types. In the case of a solid-sheet metallic gasket, where the gasket is expected to undergo local yielding to provide adequate conformance and sealing, supplier is usually not able to provide the required L/D curve due to difficulties experimentally separating the large loads and small displacements from the elastic loads and deflections of the experimental apparatus. In absence of L/D curve the current analysis approach is to model gasket as 3D continuum elements with considering nonlinear material and contacts. The focus of the procedure given here is on finite element modeling method to get stable and reliable simulation results. The analysis relies on a simplified approach for modeling the gasket as gasket elements rather than 3D continuum elements. This allows for fast and efficient turnaround time. The behavior of the "equivalent" gasket elements is obtained through a 2D axisymmetric analysis of a small section or cross section of the gasket. Here Loading & Unloading L/D curves generated from 2D-axisymmetric FEA are then fed to a 3D, but selectively simplified, FEA model for sealing analysis. Analysis approach is validated by comparing gasket pressure with experimental Fuji test and also 3D continuum elements FEA results and observed to be a good match.


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