Holistic Thermal Energy Modelling For Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) 2020-01-0151
Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are usually defined by their capability to drive in a fully electric mode, offering the advantage that they do not produce any emissions at the point of use. This is particularly important in built up areas, where localised emissions in the form of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM), may worsen health issues such as respiratory disease. However, high degrees of electrification also mean that waste heat from the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is often not available for heating the cabin and maintaining the temperature of the powertrain and emissions control system. If not managed properly, this can result in increased fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and reduced electric-only range at moderately high or low ambient temperatures negating many of the benefits of the electrification. This paper describes the development of a holistic, modular vehicle model designed for development of an Integrated Thermal Energy Management Strategy (ITEMS). The developed model utilises advanced simulation techniques, such as co-simulation and surrogate modelling, to incorporate a high fidelity thermo-fluid model, a multi-phase Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) model, and a multi-zone cabin model within an existing longitudinal powertrain simulation environment. It is shown that the final model is useful for analysing the flow of energy between stored chemical energy in the batteries and fuel tank, the kinetic energy of the vehicle, and thermal energy stored both in the powertrain cooling system and within the passenger compartment. This enables identification of sources of energy loss and in-efficiency over a wide range of environmental conditions.
Tom Fletcher, Nikolaos Kalantzis, Ahmed Ahmedov, Ruoyang Yuan, Kambiz Ebrahimi, Nilabza Dutta, Christopher Price
Loughborough University, Jaguar Land Rover