Browse Publications Technical Papers 2020-01-0294
2020-04-14

Influence of Port Water Injection on the Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine 2020-01-0294

It is well known that engine downsizing is still the main energy-saving technology for spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. However, with the continuous increase of the boosting ratio, the gasoline engine is often accompanied by the occurrence of knocking, which has the drawback to run the engine at retarded combustion phasing. Besides, in order to protect the turbine blades from being sintered by high exhaust temperature, the strategies of fuel enrichment are often taken to reduce the combustion temperature, which ultimately leads to a high level of particulate number emission. Therefore, to address the issues discussed above, the port water injection (PWI) techniques on a 1.2-L turbocharged, three-cylinder, SIDI engine were investigated.
Measurements indicate that the optimization of spark timing has a significant impact on its performance. The two factors of the water substance itself and spark advance caused by the knock mitigation are trade-offs, which eventually affect the combustion performance. Under knock limited spark advance (KLSA) condition, we find that the application of port water injection could effectively advance the combustion phasing and reduce exhaust gas temperature, which makes it possible to eliminate fuel enrichment and further enhances the fuel economy improvement at the maximum power point. As a result, about 5.2%-18.4% improvements in the fuel economy are obtained under different engine operating conditions.
For the exhaust emissions, due to the increasing heat capacity of the mixture and the elimination of fuel enrichment, port water injection techniques cause an 85.3% reduction in particle number concentration. However, it shows that for a given λ, an increase in the water/fuel ratio would cause higher THC emissions, which is contributed to the occurrence of more quenching caused by higher peak combustion pressure. Finally, the potential of PWI on the engine combustion characteristics and emissions performance was revealed.

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