Browse Publications Technical Papers 2020-01-0395

Detection of Polar Compounds Condensed on Particulate Matter Using Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry 2020-01-0395

A new analytical method to aid in the understanding of the organic carbon (OC) phase of particulate matter (PM) from advanced compression ignition (ACI) operating modes, is presented. The presence of NO2 and unburned fuel aromatics in ACI emissions, and the low exhaust temperatures that result from this low temperature combustion strategy, provide the right conditions for the formation of carboxylic acids and nitroaromatic compounds. These polar compounds contribute to OC in the PM and are not typically measured using nonpolar solvent extraction methods such as the soluble organic fraction (SOF) method. The new extraction and detection method employs capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI MS) and was specifically developed to determine polar organic compounds in the ACI PM emissions. The new method identified both nitrophenols and aromatic carboxylic acids in the ACI PM. The ACI air-fuel stratification mode and NOx emissions were found to correlate with the presence and amount of the individual polar species identified.


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