Biofidelity of THOR 5th Percentile Female ATD in Ankle Eversion and Inversion 2020-01-0528
Females have higher frequency and risk of foot and ankle injuries in motor vehicle collisions than similar-sized males. Therefore, lower extremity biofidelity and accurate injury prediction of female ATDs is critical. This paper aims to compare the THOR 5th percentile female (THOR-05F) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) response with male and female PMHS data of various sizes under ankle inversion and eversion. The THOR-05F lower extremity was subjected to dynamic inversion and eversion ankle loading with a constant 2000N axial force applied through the tibia. Twelve THOR-05F tests (3 inversion and 3 eversion on both, left and right legs) were performed with boundary conditions consistent with previous post-mortem human subject (PMHS) lower extremity tests. The biofidelity of THOR-05F ankle stiffness was evaluated via comparison of measured and equal-stress equal-velocity scaled data (using mass-based scale factors) from previous PMHS datasets with mid-size males, small females and larger females. THOR-05F ankle moment-angle response falls within the range of previous mid-sized male and larger female PMHS test data for eversion, when scaled to a small female. However, when compared to PMHS response measured on small female subjects, the THOR-05F response was less stiff in both inversion and eversion. The THOR-05F moments were 65% and 90% less stiff in eversion and inversion respectively, when compared to the average of the measured small female PMHS dataset at 25° ankle rotation. Because ATD stiffness differs from measured PMHS ankle stiffness, care should be taken when applying PMHS-based injury risk functions (IRF) to the THOR-05F ankle.