Lookie Here! Designing Directional User Indicators Across Displays in Conditional Autonomous Vehicles 2020-01-1201
Based on the SAE’s classification (J3016), drivers’ attention will be gradually released from the driving task as the level of automation in the vehicle increases. It allows drivers to complete more non-driving related tasks in information and entertainment system. The trigger point for the major transition in driver control happens in the progression from level 2 to level 3 when the automated driving system (ADS) starts to perform a major part of the dynamic driving task (DDT) in the allowed conditions, but meanwhile it still needs the drivers are ready for takeover control or other interventions in a short time. In this paper, we investigated whether providing directional alerts to a user’s active screen with non-driving related tasks can augment their ability in regaining situational awareness on road hazard when traveling in a conditional autonomous vehicle. A user study (N=15) was conducted to compare solutions between the central and peripheral field across displays where subjects were seated in an autonomous vehicle simulator and distracted by playing a game on a tablet screen (iPad). With different immersion time, the autonomous vehicle would encounter a point of interest on the road that it would communicate to the participant via an alert. A non-directional alert, as the benchmark, was compared to two separate directional solutions, located at the center or the periphery of the screen, to better understand how direction data can assist the subject’ attention switch back to the road. We compared the subjects’ reaction times and System Usability Scale (SUS) analysis between three solutions in different time of non-driving related tasks immersion, the short-term (30 sec) and the long-term (2 mins). Our findings imply that designing user interfaces with directional alerts to assist drivers can facilitate their visual attention switch between non-driving related screen tasks and the road hazards.
Pranav Nair, Wei Wang, Hongnan Lin
Harman Connected Services, Georgia Institute of Technology