Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems for City Bus Applications 2020-01-1208
The bus sector is currently lagging behind when it comes to implementing autonomous systems for improved vehicle safety. However, in cities such as London, public transport strategies are changing, with requirements being made for advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) on buses. This study discusses the adoption of ADAS systems within the bus sector. A review of the on-road ADAS bus trials shows that passive forward collision warning (FCW) and intelligent speed assistance (ISA) systems have been successful in reducing the number of imminent pedestrian/vehicle collision events and improving speed limit compliance, respectively. Bus accident statistics for Great Britain have shown that pedestrians account for 82% of all fatalities, with three quarters occurring with frontal bus impacts. These statistics suggest that the bus forward collision warning system is a priority for inclusion in future vehicles to enhance the driver’s direct vision, and to increase reaction time for earlier brake application. Almost 80% of bus occupant casualties occurred in non-impact situations, mainly during acceleration/deceleration events. Therefore, care must be taken in implementing autonomous braking in buses, to ensure that it does not cause an increased number of deceleration events beyond the safe stability limits for passengers. Real on-road drive cycle data has shown that while instances of unsafe braking events do not occur regularly, there are instances of braking events that would present a hazard to both seated and standing passengers, therefore systems that would mitigate these issues would have real benefits to both passenger comfort and safety. During tests to simulate the use of the vehicle retarder for an autonomous braking system, deceleration rates largely remained safely within standee and seated passenger stability limits, whereas an emergency stop test showed a peak deceleration 3.5 times the limit of a standee supported by a vertical handrail, and 4 times the limit for a forward/backward facing seated passenger.