Browse Publications Technical Papers 2020-01-1224
2020-04-14

The Effect of Crash Severity and Structural Intrusion on ATD Responses in Rear-End Crashes 2020-01-1224

This study assesses the vehicle and occupant responses in six high-speed rear impact crash tests. The instrumented vehicle-to-vehicle tests included a lap-shoulder belted Hybrid III ATD. Four tests were with a 50th male in the driver seat, one with a 95th male in the driver seat and one with a 5th female in the left rear seat. Three ATDs had instrumentation which was analyzed and compared to corresponding IARVs (injury assessment reference values). As part of the analysis, the ground based and onboard vehicle videos were synchronized with the vehicle kinematics and ATD measurements. The delta Vs ranged from 48 to 76 km/h in the five tests with the driver ATD. The timing of the crush, intrusion, driver seat back motion and occupant motion was assessed. The results indicated that the rear structures of the struck vehicle were crushed by the striking vehicle rear and over-ride impact. The 2nd row seat intrusion supported and then pushed the driver seat forward, changing the ATD dynamics. The driver ATD neck forces exceeded the IARVs in two tests. In one test, the driver seat was purposefully braced and the dummy ramped up into the intruded roof structure. In the 2nd test, maximum neck responses occurred around 200 ms, coinciding with the ATD being pushed forward from intrusion. The test with the left 2nd row occupant involved a pickup striking the rear of a Ford Taurus. The delta V was 32 km/h. The 2nd row intrusion pushed the ATD upper and lower torso forward. Significant neck moments were measured that exceeded the IARVs. The results from the study highlight the significance of crash forces in high-speed rear impacts resulting in intrusion of the vehicle structures into the occupant compartment.

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