Browse Publications Technical Papers 2020-01-1311
2020-04-14

A Demonstration of High Efficiency, High Reactivity Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuel in an On & Off Road Diesel Engine Application 2020-01-1311

The regulatory requirements to reduce both greenhouse gases and exhaust gas pollutants from heavy duty engines are driving new perspectives on the interaction between fuels and engines. Fuels that reliefs the burden on engine manufacturers to reach these goals are of particular interest. A low carbon fuel with a higher volatility and heating value than diesel is one such fuel that reduces engine-out emissions and carbon footprint from the entire hydrocarbon lifecycle (well-to-wheel) and improves fuel efficiency, which is a main enabler for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) technology. The present study investigated the potential of GCI technology by evaluating the performance of a low carbon high efficiency, high reactivity gasoline fuel in Doosan’s 6L medium duty diesel engine. In the experimental test, it was found that the fuel could provide the same performance in power and torque with the same calibration strategy as diesel, while the fuel efficiency was improved by maximum 4.3%. Overall total hydrocarbon (THC) and particulate matter (PM) emissions were decreased, but nitrogen oxides (NOx) was increased by average 6%. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) engine simulations were conducted to find the way to suppress NOx emission while maintaining other benefits of the fuel. At the same injection calibration, the experimental observation was reproduced computationally. Fuel injection strategy was further investigated by changing the start of injection (SOI) and splitting the fuel injection into pilot, main and post injections. The used fuel was able to achieve up to 16% of NOx reduction at the same fuel efficiency while maintaining low PM emission. This work demonstrated that a low carbon high reactivity gasoline fuel can improve the fuel efficiency and lower the emissions with minimum modification on engine hardware and calibration in a medium duty diesel engine.

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