Browse Publications Technical Papers 2020-01-1328

Evaluation of General Motors Event Data Recorder Performance in Semi-Trailer Rear Underride Collisions 2020-01-1328

The objective of this study was to analyze the validity of airbag control module data in semi-trailer rear underride collisions. These impacts involve unusual collision dynamics, including long crash pulses and minimal bumper engagement [1]. For this study, publicly available data from 16 semi-trailer underride guard crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were used to form conclusions about the accuracy of General Motors airbag control module (ACM) delta-V (ΔV) data in a semi-trailer rear underride scenario. These tests all utilized a 2009 or 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacting a stationary 48’ or 53’ semi-trailer at a speed of 35 mph. Nine tests were fully overlapped collisions, six were 30% overlapped, and one was 50% overlapped [2]. The IIHS test vehicles were equipped with calibrated 10000 Hz accelerometer units. Event Data Recorder (EDR) data imaged post-accident from the test vehicles were compared to the reference IIHS data. For each test, root mean square error (RMSE), the percent error over time, and the difference between the EDR ΔV and the IIHS ΔV, was quantified, plotted, and related to crash pulse. This analysis revealed a general trend of decreasing EDR ΔV parity with an increasing crash pulse duration, although overall differences remained low for most tests. Eleven tests, all with airbag deployments, converged towards an average of 3.3% error at the end of the crash pulse, which were 150-270 ms. EDR recorded ΔVs were in the range of 29.8-39.9 mph. Five tests, three of which were non-deployments, diverged to higher percentage error averaging 12.7% at an EDR ΔV of 31.8-40.0 mph. All higher error tests were 30% overlapped and had the highest crash pulse durations of 240-300 ms. One fully overlapped test generated highly unusual EDR data due to failure of the rear underride guard mounting bolts and plates.


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