Browse Publications Technical Papers 2020-01-2199
2020-09-15

Effect of Renewable Fuel Blends on PN and SPN Emissions in a GDI Engine 2020-01-2199

To characterize the effects of renewable fuels on particulate emissions from GDI engines, engine experiments were conducted using EN228-compliant gasoline fuel blends containing no oxygenates, 10% ethanol (EtOH), or 22% ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). The experiments were conducted in a single cylinder GDI engine using a 6-hole fuel injector operated at 200 bar injection pressure. Both PN in raw exhaust and solid PN (SPN) were measured at two load points and various start of injection (SOI) timings. Raw PN and SPN results were classified into various size ranges, corresponding to current and future legislations.
At early SOI timings, where particulate formation is dominated by diffusion flames on the piston due to liquid film, the oxygenated blends yielded dramatically higher PN and SPN emissions than reference gasoline because of fuel effects.
For particulates >23 nm and with optimized SOI timing, the use of oxygenated blends significantly increases SPN and conversely decreases raw PN emissions at low load (4.5 bar IMEP). At high load (9 bar IMEP), overall SPN emissions were significantly higher and there were no clear differences between the blends. Additionally, SPN measurements showed that soot formation and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) depended strongly on blend composition.
Finally, adding oxygenates (up to 22%) to gasoline did not reduce emissions of SPN in the size ranges addressed by current regulations.

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