Browse Publications Technical Papers 2020-01-5084
2020-10-01

Nitrogen Oxide Reduction Potentials Using Dimethyl Ether and Oxymethylene Ether in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine 2020-01-5084

The synthetic fuels dimethyl ether (DME) and polyoxymethylene dimethylether (POMDME or OME) are promising oxygenated fuels to meet the rising challenges of air pollution control, CO2-neutrality, and sustainability. The sootless combustion and high ignitability of DME and OME represent ideal properties for an application in diesel engines. However, recent investigations of oxygenates reported an increase of nanoparticles, which are known to have fatal effects on human’s health. Besides nanoparticles, ongoing discussions about future emission legislation focus on a drastic reduction of NOx.
For this reason, the present work investigates different measures to reduce NOx emissions using DME/OME and a paraffinic diesel fuel (PDF) as reference. Different rail pressures, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates, and injection timings are evaluated, considering the effectivity on NOx reduction and the impact on other emissions, especially on nanoparticles. Besides these calibration parameters, a variation of the injector nozzle design for DME/OME is carried out to find an optimum between efficiency and NOx. Finally, the influence of water injection into the intake port is investigated and compared against the NOx reduction using direct injection of a mixture of fuel with water.
It is found that the number of nanoparticles using DME/OME shows no dependency of the abovementioned NOx-reducing measures and significantly decreases in comparison to PDF. Furthermore, a nozzle design taking account of both the lower energy density of the fuels and decreased rail pressure proves to be the optimum for DME/OME, leading to a benefit in NOx emission levels and thermal efficiency in comparison to PDF. Moreover, a notable reduction in NOx is observed by injecting small amounts of water into the intake port. Though, increased water mass does not lead to a proportional NOx reduction effect. Direct injection of fuel/water mixtures shows a comparable effect on NOx emission levels when applying an equal amount of water. However, the direct injection of a fuel/water mixture shows higher impact on NOx reduction at increased load.

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