Browse Publications Technical Papers 2022-01-0497

Bulk Spray and Individual Plume Characterization of LPG and Iso-Octane Sprays at Engine-Like Conditions 2022-01-0497

This study presents experimental and numerical examination of directly injected (DI) propane and iso-octane, surrogates for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline, respectively, at various engine like conditions with the overall objective to establish the baseline with regards to fuel delivery required for future high efficiency DI-LPG fueled heavy-duty engines. Sprays for both iso-octane and propane were characterized and the results from the optical diagnostic techniques including high-speed Schlieren and planar Mie scattering imaging were applied to differentiate the liquid-phase regions and the bulk spray phenomenon from single plume behaviors. The experimental results, coupled with high-fidelity internal nozzle-flow simulations were then used to define best practices in CFD Lagrangian spray models. Optical imaging revealed that unlike iso-octane, propane’s spray propagation was fed by its flash boiling, spray collapse, and high degree of vaporization, resulting in a direct proportionality of propane’s penetration length to temperature. These unique features of propane and its variation from iso-octane’s spray pattern, contributed to its classification as an unconventional spray. Appropriate corrections to the injection and breakup models were developed to reproduce the under-expanded jet dynamics and to mimic the flash boiling-driven spray development observed with propane sprays. The simulation results were found to be sensitive to cone and inclusion angles of the blob injector. The current work represents a first assessment of the capability of the commonly available models for engine-spray simulations and highlights the fact that, despite the reasonable agreement obtained in the fuel vapor morphology, the representation of the liquid phase lacks accuracy and requires further model development.


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