Browse Publications Technical Papers 2022-36-0066

A review of passive pre-chamber in turbulent jet ignition system applied on low emissions SI engines 2022-36-0066

Government regulations and the growing awareness of the general population about the impact caused on nature and human health by the pollutant emission from automobiles have increased the demand for a more environmentally friendly solution for the future of mobility. Considering the high cost of electric vehicles, the negative environmental impact of their battery production due to mining, the long charging time and, above all, the fact that 65% of the global electricity is generated by fossil fuels, the relevance of further developing internal combustion engines fueled with biofuels is unquestionable. Lately, the turbulent jet ignition (TJI) system has been intensively studied as a means to reduce specific fuel consumption (SFC) and pollutant emissions from engines. Both active and passive TJI are endowed with high ignition energy allowing the spark-ignited engine to run with lean mixtures and low covariance of IMEP. TJI also increases the in-cylinder gas turbulence level, enhancing the second half combustion rate, hence mitigating knock occurrence. Since the engine is less prone to knock, the use of a higher volumetric compression ratio contributes to achieving a better SFC. Beyond helping to decrease SFC, lean mixture operation also decreases in-cylinder peak gas temperature, allowing NOx emissions to be near zero ppm. This paper aims to present a review of the most recent progress in the development and evolution of the passive pre-chamber turbulent jet ignition system. Initially, the mechanisms and details of this technology are discussed, being approached the phases of the combustion process and the formation of emissions. Next, the pre-chamber design and geometric parameters are discussed in detail, followed by an analysis of the impact of the fuel used in the main chamber and how to take advantage of the valve control strategies at different speeds and loads. Subsequently, numerical and experimental studies are confronted and the combustion visualization in addition to the charge movement analysis through CFD tools are studied. Finally, the critical points of the technology and future research are addressed.


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