Design of a Secure Automated Driving Systems Test Data Interface 2023-01-0828
Vehicles equipped with Level 4 and 5 autonomy will need to be tested according to regulatory standards (or future revisions thereof) that vehicles with lower levels of autonomy are currently subject to. Today, dynamic Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) tests are performed with human drivers and driving robots controlling the test vehicle’s steering wheel, throttle pedal, and brake pedal. However, many Level 4 and 5 vehicles will lack these traditional driver controls, so it will be impossible to control these vehicles using human drivers or traditional driving robots. Therefore, there is a need for an electronic interface that will allow engineers to send dynamic steering, speed, and brake commands to a vehicle. This paper describes the design and implementation of a market-ready Automated Driving Systems (ADS) Test Data Interface (TDI), a secure electronic control interface which aims to solve the challenges outlined above. The interface consists of a communication port integrated into automobiles which lack traditional manual controls. Via this interface dynamic test scenarios can be executed by plugging in a Vehicle Control Unit (VCU), which is an element of the TDI hardware/firmware intended to be available only to authorized users. Physically, the VCU can interface with the On-board Diagnostics (OBD) OBD-II connector that is present on essentially all modern automobiles. This paper also describes a demonstration of the complete VCU with the secure TDI using a vehicle equipped with a Dataspeed drive-by-wire kit, with its steering, throttle, and brake control systems mimicking the behavior of an autonomous subject vehicle.