Browse Publications Technical Papers 2023-24-0090

Electrofuel Concept of Diesel and Oxygenate Fuels Reduces Engine-Out Emissions 2023-24-0090

Electrofuels produced from renewable hydrogen (H2) and captured carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sustainable and carbon-neutral. Paraffinic electrodiesel (e-diesel) can be produced via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with fuel properties resembling hydrotreated vegetable oils. Electrofuels can be also oxygenated compounds, such as oxymethylene dimethyl ethers (OMEn), having different chain lengths. We studied emissions using paraffinic diesel mimicking e-diesel and its blend with 10% of OME3-5, which has diesel-type fuel properties, in comparison with normal EN590 diesel fuel. An intensive measurement campaign was performed with a modern diesel engine without exhaust aftertreatment to study the effect of fuel on the engine-out emissions. Measurements with the RMC-C1 cycle included detailed characterization of gaseous, particle and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions having adverse effects on health and the environment. In these tests without a diesel particulate filter, the fuel containing the OME3-5 component reduced the black carbon (BC) emissions substantially in comparison with EN590. PM and PAH emissions, as well as the number of non-volatile particle numbers (nvPN), were lower for paraffinic fuel than for the EN590 fuel, and particularly for the OME3-5 blend. As regards gaseous emissions, paraffinic fuel showed lower engine-out NOx emissions than the EN590 fuel, however, OME3-5 oxygenate did not further increase this NOx reduction. Higher formaldehyde concentration in the exhaust was found for OME3-5 containing fuel than for the hydrocarbon-only fuels, which can be tackled with an inexpensive oxidation catalyst. In summary, e-diesel type paraffinic fuel reduced the engine-out exhaust emissions from a modern diesel engine substantially, and OME3-5 addition further reduced the most harmful emission species even at a 10% blending level.


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