Browse Publications Technical Papers 2024-26-0311
2024-01-16

Gasket Joint Sealing Behavior Prediction Using a Simplified FEA Approach 2024-26-0311

Gaskets are used widely for sealing of bolted joints. This paper focuses on Rubber over Metal (ROM) gaskets, which are widely used in the automotive industry. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of ROM gaskets is complex and involves material (hyper-elastic), contact and geometric nonlinearity. Gaskets can be flat or have one or multiple beads. Analytical approaches are available for flat gaskets without bead patterns. This paper focuses on analyzing ROM gaskets with beads in automotive axle differential carrier housings and cover pans.
This paper describes a simplified FEA approach that uses 1D and 2D elements with derived properties for gasket joints instead of modeling ROM gaskets with three-dimensional (3D) elements. The major characteristics that determine sealing behavior are contact pressure and contact width. These characteristics are determined by the cover pan deflection. The cover pan deflection was calculated using a simplified FEA approach. The regression model is used to establish the link between cover pan deflection and the controlling parameters. 3D FEA is used to validate the simplified FEA approach. While keeping the accuracy of the results, this approach makes FE modeling easier. This method significantly improved computational efficiency by minimizing the barriers to solution convergence caused by material hyper-elasticity and large deformation. These added benefits make this approach more efficient for both standard ROM gasket bolted joint evaluations and DOE studies to find the transfer function between input/output parameters to analyze joint sealing behavior.

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