CYLINDER ACTIONS IN GAS AND GASOLINE ENGINES 210043
The distinguished author begins with a short account of the principal actions common to all internal-combustion engines and then proceeds to a more detailed account of the experiments that have been made to develop the theory and establish the properties of the flame working fluid of those engines.
The divisions of the paper are headed (a) short statement of cylinder actions, (b) the air standard, (c) flame, the actual working fluid, (d) knocking, pinking and detonating, (e) air and exhaust supercompression, (f) residual turbulence, (g) gaseous explosions, (h) flame propagation and recompression, (i) the specific heat of flame, and (j) conclusions.
After treating (a) in considerable detail, the author discusses present efficiencies and knowledge in regard to the limits of the thermal efficiency possible in internal-combustion engines under (b), (c), (d) and (e), going into considerable detail and presenting and analyzing numerous diagrams and charts. Under (f) reference is made to the author's paper on the Theory of the Gas Engine and the experiments of the late Professor Hopkinson are discussed. The subjects under (g), (h) and (i) are then elaborated upon, illustrated and described in a comprehensive manner, many data and analyses being presented in support of the author's thought. His conclusions refer directly to the cause of detonation and methods of preventing it.