Stating that the knowledge now available does not permit an exact scientific definition of flame and giving the reasons, in this paper the author regards flames as gases rendered temporarily visible by reason of chemical action, discusses their physical rather than their chemical aspects and, unless otherwise indicated, refers to the flames of common gasoline and kerosene only.
To gain a reasonably clear understanding of the requirements and characteristics of the different kinds of flame, it is necessary to begin with a study of atoms and molecules. The author therefore discusses the present atomic theory, the shape of the atom and molecular structure, and follows this with a lengthy detailed description of the beginning of combustion.
The requirements and characteristics of the inoffensive variety of combustion are considered next and nine specific remedies are given for use in accomplishing the burning of heavy fuels with a blue flame in present engines. Oxidation and flame propagation are then discussed, the statement being made and amplified that it is likely that kerosene and gasoline can be more effectively burned by stratifying the mixture so that ignition occurs in a very rich portion which burns out into an excess of air, or a supporting atmosphere.