ONE-DIRECTION clutches have been applied to motor-cars to prevent the engine from being driven by the car when coasting and to facilitate gear-shifting. A number of representative designs are described in detail and in relation to their location in the transmission line.
Following this is a detailed description of the construction and operation of the free-wheel device as applied to the Studebaker transmission, in which it takes the form of a single overrunning-clutch placed between the clutch gear and the splined shaft of the transmission in such a way that it serves to clutch either direct drive or second gear in either free-wheeling or positive engagement. Twelve rollers of graduated sizes are arranged in three groups in contact with three cam surfaces in the clutch. Sizes of rollers and dimensions of the cam surfaces are given.
Tests were made for durability of the device, for savings in fuel and oil, and for any increase in demands on the brakes and generator. These are reported, with tables. The advantages of free-wheeling are detailed, and changes in design and adjustment that it entailed are described.
This paper was read by Mr. Roos at a Metropolitan Section meeting, at which letters on the subject from prominent engineers were read as discussion.* Mr. James read the paper at a meeting of the Dayton Section. Among the points which were covered in the discussion were the necessity of increasing the idling speed of the engine to guard against stalling, the effect on battery charging, and questions relating to the use of the engine as a brake in emergencies and on heavy commercial vehicles and to additional wear on the brakes due to free-wheeling down grades.