THE author describes the conditions of aircraft operation in Canada during the winter and after outlining the laborious technique pursued for several years emphasizes the need for improvement in lubrication and starting technique in order that commercial undertakings may make full use of the short northern day.
Elimination of cold weather lubrication difficulties is based on the proposition that oil temperature is in itself immaterial and that its only real importance is the effect on viscosity which is regarded as a state rather than as a property. In consequence a variation of oil grade and a premeditated variation of oil operating temperature under adequate control is advanced as the solution and the results of two years practical trial are offered as proof. A brief specification of a desirable oil system is given, together with a forecast of possible developments in the near future to deal with existing lubricants.
Cold oil having been proved to be effective down to temperatures of -25 deg. fahr., extension to lower temperature ranges again brings to the fore the problem of obtaining the first ignition. The use of booster devices for the ignition in conjunction with special starting fuels is contemplated and briefly discussed. The necessity for engine warming equipment cannot be ignored for some time and desiderata for this are submitted.
Lubrication of valves, and valve gears, requires attention. The lubrication of accessories such as starters is a big problem in itself.
Difficulties in connection with ice in the carburetor are, if anything, rather less severe in Canada than in the warmer but damper regions further south.