On the STRENGTH of Highly Stressed, Dynamically Loaded BOLTS and STUDS 440160
EXTENSIVE study by Mr. Almen on the strength of highly stressed, dynamically loaded bolts and studs has led him to the following conclusions:
The strength of dynamically loaded, highly stressed bolts and studs is determined by the man with the wrench. Other considerations, such as design, material, and processing, are of relatively minor importance.
The elasticity of bolts and studs should be as great as possible.
The bolted members should be as rigid as possible.
Loss of dimension of the bolted members is particularly hazardous to the strength of short bolts and studs.
No adequate means are available for determining nut tightness except when the elongation of the bolt can be measured.